At the Centeno-Schultz Clinic we acknowledge that there are many causes of ankle pain.
Ortho 2.o discusses the key concepts in evaluating the ankle: Stabilization, Articulation, Neurological and Alignment.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is an entrapment of the tibial nerve on the medial side of the ankle and is characterized by numbness and pain in the toes and sole of the foot.
The tibial nerve, artery and tendons of the flexors travel as a bundle through the tarsal tunnel. the tarsal tunnel is delineated by bone on the inside and the flexor retinaculum on the outside. In the tarsal tunnel the tibial nerve divides into three different segment:. calcaneal, medial and lateral.
Anything that creates pressure in the Tarsal Tunnel can cause TTS. Common causes include cysts, bone spurs, varicose veins, ganglia, inflammation of tendons or swelling from trauma.
Symptoms include burning pain, tingling or numbness typically worse after prolonged standing.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is diagnosed by clinical examination and based on findings such as area of sensory disturbance and positive Tinel sign over the tarsal tunnel.
Ultrasound imaging is utilized at the Centeno-Schultz Clinic for both diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic injections of prolotherapy and platelet derived growth factors. Below is short axis ultrasound image of the tarsal tunnel and tibial nerve.
Legend: Abdh: abductor hallucis muscle,
curved arrow: tibial nerve,
fhl: flexor hallucis longus tendon,
ST: sustentaculum tali,
straight open arrows: flexor digitorum longus tendon,
void arrowhead: tibial artery,
white arrow heads: posterior tibial veins.